'I HAVE lost hope of liberating Iraq and turning it into an Islamic
society." So said Muqtada al-Sadr in an open letter to his followers
published last week.
The young Shiite mullah once claimed he
would lead Iraq "back to true Islam," but he has been in Iran for at
least the last six months. He had been expected to announce an end to
the cease-fire observed by his Mahdi Army since 2007. Instead, he
voiced a litany of woes that ended with an implicit pledge not to reactivate his death squads.
Muqtada blamed members of his entourage and unnamed mullahs and Shiite
notables for having "undermined the struggle" for "worldly reasons" and
for having succumbed to the temptation of wealth and power presented to
them by the Iraqi government.
The 32-year-old ex-militia
leader ended his letter by announcing that he is withdrawing from
public life to pursue clerical studies "in accordance with the will and
testament of my late father," Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Sadeq al-Sadr.
Muqtada now lives in Tehran but spends part of each week in the Iranian
"holy" city of Qom, where he's taking a crash course in Shiite theology
under the guidance of Ayatollah Nasser Makarem-Shirazi, a
pro-government mullah with extensive business interests. Iranian
sources say Tehran has decided to transform Muqtada into a genuine
mullah who could be presented as a religious leader for Iraq in the
next five to 10 years.
The real reason for Tehran's decision to withdraw Muqtada from active politics, however, may lie elsewhere.
In recent months, Tehran policymakers have begun to understand a
crucial fact about Iraq: Any weakening of Prime Minister Nouri
al-Maliki's government now could persuade the United States to throw
its support behind an alternative, anti-Iranian coalition of Arab
Sunnis, Kurds and secular Shiites openly hostile to Iran.
Thus, Tehran and Washington have a joint interest in keeping
al-Maliki's coalition in power - at least until next year's Iraqi
A worsening of Iraq's situation would
increase the pressure on the next US president to start disengaging
from what many Americans already see as a dicey adventure. And a US
departure would produce a gap that only other outside powers would be
able to fill.
The conventional wisdom in many places is that
the key outside power likely to fill that gap is Iran. Iran does wield
immense influence in Iraq, yet it's in no position to dictate Iraq's
future political course. Even the Iraqi Shiite factions who look to
Iran as the ultimate guarantor of their safety don't wish to see Iran
as the dominant influence in Baghdad.
An early US
withdrawal could lead to the disintegration of the Shiite-Kurdish
coalition that is at least not hostile to Iran. As President Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad's disastrous visit to Iraq this month showed, a good
segment of Iraqi opinion regards the Islamic Republic as a troublemaker
if not an outright enemy.
So we have a paradoxical situation
in which the Islamic Republic actually fears that a precipitous US
departure from Iraq could enable anti-Iran elements to come to power
with the help of Arab Sunni states and Turkey.
decision to leash Muqtada is part of a broader Iranian scheme to buy
time. In the meantime, Tehran wants the Americans to keep on bleeding
but not so profusely that the next president disengages from Iraq.
Tehran is also developing its ties with anti-US Sunni groups,
especially by supplying them with sophisticated explosive devices. The
idea is that, at some point, Tehran would be able to put together a
coalition in Iraq transcending the Sunni-Shiite cleavage in the name of
a common struggle against the American "Great Satan."
While Washington decision-makers are forced to think short-term,
from one election to another, Tehran's powers take a longer-term view.
In the case of Iraq, they are thinking for the next decade or so, just
as they did in the case of Lebanon and, later, the Palestinian
The Iraqi government and its coalition allies
shouldn't stand idly by and watch the Islamic Republic impose its
strategy on Iraq. Maliki should acknowledge the importance of the
constituency that once backed Muqtada. (In the last general election,
it won 11-plus percent of the votes.)
With Muqtada deciding to
go to school, millions of poor Shiites, especially in Baghdad's slums,
are left leaderless and vulnerable to the siren song of criminal gangs.
Maliki could build a bridge to them by offering them jobs, better
health care and, above all, security against racketeers and other
Numerous former Muqtada associates are prepared to
work with the government locally and nationally. But many are shut out
of power circles because of old rivalries with the largest Shiite
political faction, led by Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim, a mid-ranking mullah
with a history of family feuds with Muqtada al-Sadr.
friends, including America, should encourage him to forget past
grievances. A large chunk of Shiite support is floating around like a
dangerous iceberg - but could be stabilized as part of the broader
national coalition. Shiite unity remains the key to long-term stability
and democratization in Iraq.
Muqtada shattered Shiite unity
when, encouraged by Tehran, he rose in revolt against the elected
government in Baghdad. With him out of the picture, no one knows how
long the opportunity to rebuild that unity will last.
re-inclusion of Muqtada's followers in the political process will make
it easier for Maliki to hold long-overdue local and municipal elections
sooner rather than later. These elections are necessary to allow the
new leadership groups that have emerged at the grass-roots level all
over Iraq to find their proper place within the decision-making process.