This month, Denmark's police foiled a terrorist plot to murder Kurt Westergaard,
the artist who drew the strongest of the twelve Muhammad images, prompting most
of the country's newspapers to reprint his cartoon as an act of solidarity
and a signal to Islamists that their threats and violence will not succeed.
This incident points to the Islamists' mixed success in curbing Western freedom
of speech about Muhammad – think of Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses or the Deutsche Oper's production of
Mozart's Idomeneo. If threats of violence
sometimes do work, they as often provoke, anger, and inspire resistance. A
polite demarche can achieve more. Illustrating this, note two parallel efforts,
dating from 1955 and 1997, to remove nearly-identical American courthouse
sculptures of Muhammad.
In 1997, the Council on American-Islamic Relations demanded that part of a
1930s frieze in the main chamber of the U.S. Supreme Court building in Washington,
D.C. be sandblasted into oblivion, on the
grounds that Islam prohibits representations of its prophet. The seven-foot
high marble relief by Adolph Weinman depicts Muhammad as one of 18 historic
lawgivers. His left hand holds the Koran in book form (a jarring historical
inaccuracy from the Muslim point of view) and his right holds a
Chief Justice William Rehnquist, however, rejected CAIR's
pressure campaign, finding that the depiction "was intended only to
recognize [Muhammad] … as an important figure in the history of law; it is not
intended as a form of idol worship." Rehnquist only conceded that court literature should mention that the
representation offends Muslim sensibilities. His decision met with riots and injuries in India.
In contrast, back in 1955, a campaign to censor a representation of Muhammad
in another American court building did succeed. That would be the New York
City-based courthouse of the Appellate Division, First Department of the New
York State Supreme Court. Built in 1902, it featured on its roof balustrade an eight-foot marble statue of
"Mohammed" by Charles Albert Lopez as one of ten historic lawgivers.
This Muhammad statue also held a Koran in his left hand and a scimitar in the
Though visible from the street, the identities of the lawgivers high atop
the building were difficult to discern. Only with a general overhaul of the
building in February 1953, including its statues, did the public become aware
of their identities. The Egyptian, Indonesian, and Pakistani ambassadors to the
United Nations responded by asking the U.S. Department of State to use its
influence to have the Muhammad statue not renovated but removed.
Characteristically, the State Department dispatched two employees to
convince New York City's public
works commissioner, Frederick H. Zurmuhlen, to accommodate the ambassadors. The
court, Chief Clerk George T. Campbell, reported, "also got a
number of letters from Mohammedans about that time, all asking the court to get
rid of the statue." All seven appellate justices recommended to Zurmuhlen
that he take down the statue.
Even though, as Time magazine put it, "the danger that any large
number of New Yorkers would take to worshiping the statue was, admittedly,
minimal," the ambassadors got their way. Zurmuhlen had the offending
statue carted off to a storehouse in Newark, New
Jersey. As Zurmuhlen figured out what to do with it,
the Times reported in 1955, the statue "has lain on its back in a
crate for several months." Its ultimate disposition is unknown.
Then, rather than replace the empty pedestal on the court building roof,
Zurmuhlen had the nine remaining statues shifted around to disguise
the empty space, with Zoroaster replacing Muhammad at the westerly corner spot.
Over a half-century later, that is where matters remain.
Recalling these events of 1955 suggests several points. First, pressure by
Muslims on the West to conform to Islamic customs predates the current Islamist
era. Second, even when minimal numbers of Muslims lived in the West, such
pressures could succeed. Finally, contrasting the parallel 1955 and 1997
episodes suggests that the earlier approach of ambassadors making polite
representations – not high-handed demands backed up by angry mobs, much less
terrorist plots – can be the more effective route.
This conclusion confirms my general argument – and the premise of the Islamist
Watch project – that Islamists working quietly within the system achieve
more than those relying on ferocity and bellicosity. Ultimately, soft Islamism
presents dangers at least as great as does violent Islamism.