In his comprehensive study of the Jews of Palestine during the 19th century, Professor Tudor Parfitt made these summary observations:
Inside the towns, Jews and other dhimmis were frequently attacked, wounded, and even killed by local Muslims and Turkish soldiers. Such attacks were frequently for trivial reasons: Wilson [in British Foreign Office correspondence] recalled having met a Jew who had been badly wounded by a Turkish soldier for not having instantly dismounted when ordered to give up his donkey to a soldier of the Sultan. Many Jews were killed for less. On occasion the authorities attempted to get some form of redress but this was by no means always the case: the Turkish authorities themselves were sometimes responsible for beating Jews to death for some unproven charge. After one such occasion [British Consul] Young remarked: ‘I must say I am sorry and surprised that the Governor could have acted so savage a part- for certainly what I have seen of him I should have thought him superior to such wanton inhumanity- but it was a Jew- without friends or protection- it serves to show well that it is not without reason that the poor Jew, even in the nineteenth century, lives from day to day in terror of his life’. 82
…In fact, it took some time [i.e., at least a decade after the 1839 reforms] before these courts did accept dhimmi testimony in Palestine. The fact that Jews were represented on the meclis [provincial legal council] did not contribute a great deal to the amelioration of the legal position of the Jews: the Jewish representatives were tolerated grudgingly and were humiliated and intimidated to the point that they were afraid to offer any opposition to the Muslim representatives. In addition the constitution of the meclis was in no sense fairly representative of the population. In Jerusalem in the 1870s the meclis consisted of four Muslims, three Christians and only one Jew- at a time when Jews constituted over half the population of the city…Some years after the promulgation of the hatt-i-serif [Tanzimat reform edicts] Binyamin [note: from “Eight Years in Asia and Africa from 1846 to 1855”, p.44] was still able to write of the Jews- ‘they are entirely destitute of every legal protection’…Perhaps even more to the point, the courts were biased against the Jews and even when a case was heard in a properly assembled court where dhimmi testimony was admissible the court would still almost invariably rule against the Jews. It should be noted that a non-dhimmi [eg., foreign] Jew was still not permitted to appear and witness in either the mahkama [specific Muslim council] or the meclis. 83
During World War I in Palestine, the embattled Young Turk government actually began deporting the Jews of Tel Aviv in the spring of 1917 - an ominous parallel to the genocidal deportations of the Armenian dhimmi communities throughout Anatolia. Indeed, as related by Yair Auron,
“…Fear of the Turkish actions was bound up with alarm that the Turks might do to the Jewish community in Palestine, or at least to the Zionist elements within it, what they had done to the Armenians. This concern was expressed in additional evidence from the early days of the war, from which we can conclude that the Armenian tragedy was known in the Yishuv [Jewish community in Palestine].” 84
Auron cites a Reuters press release regarding the deportation which states that,
“ on April 1  an order was given to deport all the Jews from Tel Aviv, including citizens of the Central Powers, within forty-eight hours. A week before, three hundred Jews were expelled from Jerusalem: Jamal Pasha [one of the triumvirate of Young Turk supreme leaders, Minister of the Navy, and commander of the Fourth Army in the Levant] declared that their fate would be that of the Armenians; eight thousand deportees from Tel Aviv were not allowed to take any provisions with them, and after the expulsion their houses were looted by Bedouin mobs; two Yemenite Jews who tried to oppose the looting were hung at the entrance to Tel Aviv so that all might see, and other Jews were found dead in the Dunes around Tel Aviv.” 85
Although Auron remains neutral as to why the looming slaughter of the Jews of Palestine did not occur, he cites a very tenable hypothesis put forth at that time in a journal of the British Zionist movement suggested that the advance of the British army (from immediately adjacent Egypt) and its potential willingness
..to hold the military and Turkish authorities directly responsible for a policy of slaughter and destruction of the Jews” may have averted this disaster. 86
Ultimately, enforced abrogation of the laws and social practices of dhimmitude required the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire, which only occurred during the European Mandate period following World War I. Remarkably soon afterwards, however,( i.e., within two years of the abrogation of the Shari’a!) by 1920, Musa Kazem el-Husseini, former governor of Jaffa during the final years of the Ottoman rule, and president of the Arab (primarily Muslim) Palestinian Congress, demanded restoration of the Shari’a in a letter to the British High Commissioner, Herbert Samuels:
No individual or Government has any right to represent the country in legislating laws because the country is better acquainted with its own needs and because laws, as Jurists state, are the reflection of the people’s spirit and because [Ottoman] Turkey has drafted such laws as suit our customs. This was done relying upon the Shari’a (Religious Law), in force in Arabic territories, that is engraved in the very hearts of the Arabs and has been assimilated in their customs and that has been applied …in the modern [Arab] states…We therefore ask the British government…that it should respect these laws [i.e., the Shari’a]…that were in force under the Turkish regime…87
Subsequently, a strong Arab Muslim irredentist current promulgated the forcible restoration of dhimmitude via jihad. Shai Lachman outlines the two parallel processes which accompanied this transition, and culminated in the widespread violence of 1936-39:
The Muslim-Christian Associations gradually declined and disappeared in the course of the (nineteen) thirties, giving way to new communal formations focusing on the idea of defending Muslim holy places in Palestine and on mobilizing the Arab people for the coming struggle by means of Islamic symbols. Such were the Young Men’s Muslim Associations (Jam’iyyat al-shubban al-muslimin), which, towards the end of the twenties began forming on a strictly communal basis and which included in their program pronounced anti-Jewish propaganda. 88
Two prominent Muslim personalities Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam, and Hajj Amin el-Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, embodied this trend. And both these leaders relied upon the ideology of jihad, with its virulent anti-infidel (i.e., anti-Jewish, anti-Christian, and anti-Western) incitement, to garner popular support.
(Sheikh) Izz al-Din al-Qassam (1871 or 1882-1935) was an Al-Azhar-trained cleric who studied under Muhammad Abdu, a well-known Muslim thinker. Al-Qassam was reportedly a participant in anti-British activities during his sojourn in Cairo. Assisted by Ottoman authorities, he later organized an anti-Italian campaign from Syria, i.e., “He called the people to jihad”, when Italy invaded Libya in 1912. By early 1921, al-Qassam moved to Palestine, settling in Haifa, where he was shortly afterward appointed imam of the al-Istiqlal mosque (January 1922). A persuasive orator and preacher, al-Qassam soon gathered around him a coterie of dedicated followers. Just prior to the 1929 riots and anti-Jewish pogroms, al-Qassam had secured three critically influential positions which allowed him to disseminate his militant ideology- imam, Shari’a Register of the northern (Palestinian) area, and prominent Young Men’s Muslim Association member. 89
Lachman has summarized the main motifs and consequences of al-Qassam’s doctrine:
Al-Qassam’s Weltanschauung was wholly rooted in Islam, which constituted the nexus of all his ideas and deeds. Al-Qassam was an orthodox Muslim, whose supreme ideal was to fulfill the precepts of his faith and do the Creator’s will, and whose conviction it was that Islam must be defended and its orthodox form preserved. This was to be accomplished by defending Islam internally against infidelity and heresy; and politically against external enemies, namely the West- with which Islam was in political and ideological conflict- and the Zionist enterprise…In his sermons [following his mentor, Muhammad Abdu], he preached for…a return to the principles and values of the original…faith…in the spirit of the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence…manifested, inter alia, in a pronounced xenophobic and anti-Jewish militant stance. He preached the preservation of the country’s Muslim-Arab character and urged an uncompromising and intensified struggle against the British Mandate and the Jewish National Home in Palestine. Palestine could be freed from the danger of Jewish domination, he believed, not by sporadic protests, demonstrations, or riots which were soon forgotten, but by an organized and methodical armed struggle. In his sermons he often quoted verses from the Qur’an referring to jihad, linking them with topical matters and his own political ideas. 90
Al-Qassam actually put his preaching into practice…After the 1929 riots, al-Qassam intensified his anti-Jewish agitation. He justified on religious grounds the excesses committed during the riots, and in 1930, even managed to obtain a fatwa from the Mufti of Damascus, Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Taji al-Hasani, authorizing the use of violence against the British and the Jews. He made a practice of reading this fatwa in mosques and in secret meetings with his disciples and followers…in the early 1930s [al-Qassam] proceeded to establish a secret association, called ‘The Black Hand’ (al-kaff al-aswad), whose aim was to kill Jews and generally to terrorize the Jewish population in the North. 91
This description of the clandestine organization al-Qassam formed sounds distressingly similar to contemporary Muslim terrorist groups operating in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza:
…in some ways [it] resembled a dervish order; its members grew their beards wild, called themselves ‘sheikhs’, and upon initiation to the secret society, took a stringent religious oath before al-Qassam to guard closely its secrets and to devote their lives to the war against the Jews. At meetings held in mosques and secret places around Haifa, al-Qassam would preach to the society’s members to prepare themselves for the eventual jihad and self-sacrifice. They were also trained in the use of arms. As one of the Qassamite leaders recalls: ‘…The meetings would commence with religious instruction by the Sheikh, who would then turn to preaching for the jihad. Finally, the [rifle instructor] would take each member of the audience in turn and teach him the handling of the rifle.’…in the Jenin mountains…at nightfall they would go into villages, or would build fires and continue prayer by their light. They imagined themselves as the mujahidun of Muhammad’s days and later periods, who consecrated themselves to the Holy War. 92
Between 1921 and al-Qassam’s death in 1935, the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin el-Husseini, and the Sheikh appear to have cooperated, overall, due to their shared goals. Describing their relationship as “…quite complex and uneven…”, Lachman, for example, concludes:
During the (nineteen) twenties, both were on good terms, their understanding probably based on identity of views and mutual esteem. It was then that al-Qassam was appointed imam of the al-Istiqlal mosque and sharia register- appointments which required the Mufti’s prior consent and approval and were financed by the awqaf administration. The cooperation may well have increased as a result of the 1929 riots. One source claims that al-Qassam’s men took an active part in the bloody riots…Later towards the mid-1930s, there was a falling out between the two men. The reason for this is unknown, but it seems to have been closely related to al-Qassam’s independent activity…As long as the terrorist activity was directed only at Jewish targets, the Mufti saw nothing wrong with this. On the contrary, it fell in line with his won anti-Jewish policy; he secretly encouraged it and apparently extended financial aid to al-Qassam and his organization.93
Al-Qassam and his devoted followers committed various acts of jihad terror targeting Jewish civilians in northern Palestine from 1931 through 1935. On November 20, 1935, al-Qassam was surrounded by British police in a cave near Jenin, and killed along with three of his henchmen. Concealed within the folds of al-Qassam’s turban, a talisman was discovered containing the following verses:
O God save me from the terrible armory of the infidel
O God let your religion win and go victorious
O God protect me in my coming adventure 94
The slain Sheikh and his comrades were lauded as holy warriors for the fatherland, and his funeral procession departing from Haifa for the Muslim cemetery at Balad al-Shaykh,
…became an impressive national demonstration. Shops and schools closed and thousands of persons walked behind the biers, which were draped with flags and national emblems. Sheikh Yunis al-Khatib said: ‘Dear and sainted friend, I heard you preaching from this lectern, leaning on your sword; now that you have left us you have become, by God, a greater preacher than you ever were in your lifetime.’ Several policemen were wounded when the mob began stoning the police during the burial ceremony.95
In the immediate aftermath of his death,
Virtually overnight, Izz al-Din al-Qassam became the object of a full-fledged cult. The bearded Sheikh’s picture appeared in all the Arabic-language papers, accompanied by banner headlines and inflammatory articles; memorial prayers were held in mosques throughout the country. He was proclaimed a martyr who had sacrificed himself for the fatherland, his grave at Balad al-Shaykh became a place of pilgrimage, and his deeds were extolled as an illustrious example to be followed by all. In addition, a countrywide fund-raising campaign was launched in aid of families of the fallen, and leading Arab lawyers volunteered to defend the members of the [surviving] band who were put on trial.96
Al-Qassam’s followers were at the vanguard of the 1936-39 Arab revolt, engaging in multiple acts of murderous jihad terror against Palestinian Jews, the British, and Christian Arabs.97 Anti-Christian leaflets were apparently distributed in Haifa by Qassamite operatives accusing the Christians of secession and treason. Qassamites also murdered Michel Mitri, the Christian President of the Jaffa Arab Worker;’s Association. 98 Ultimately, the Qassamite movement devolved into an organ of nihilistic violence:
As their strength grew…they gradually threw off all sense of responsibility. Qassamite terror was particularly bloodthirsty. From an organization committed to fight the Jews and the British, the Qassamites became one of the most anarchical and destructive forces ever to arise in the Palestinian Arab community. Their campaign of terror and the indiscriminate murders they committed contributed heavily to the rebellion’s disintegration from within, and caused the accumulation of a terrible blood debt in the Arab community…99
Lachman described the living legacy of al-Qassam and the Qassamites in 1982, his observations being perhaps even more valid at present, given the unfettered jihadism so prevalent among the Palestinian Arab masses, and the ascendancy of contemporary terrorist organizations such as Hamas (with its al-Qassam “brigades” and rockets), and Islamic Jihad:
…the Qassamite myth has not died, and continues to be revered to this very day. Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam’s deeds and personality are highly extolled by the Palestinian fedayeen organizations, including the most radical leftist and secular ones such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Habash)…Publications of the Palestinian organizations describe him as the pioneer of the Palestinian armed struggle (al-Fatah dubs him ‘the first commander of the Palestinian Revolution’), as a model of personal sacrifice and endeavor…and as one who, by his very deeds ignited the torch of the ‘heroic revolt of 1936-1939’…Up to this day, military units named after Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam may be found in almost all Palestinian organizations. Al-Qassam’s major contribution to the Palestinian armed struggle was clearly defined by Leila Khaled. ‘The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine’, she wrote, ‘begins where Qassam left off: his generation started the revolution; my generation intends to finish it’100
Hajj Amin el-Husseini was appointed Mufti of Jerusalem by the British High Commissioner, in May 1921, a title he retained, following the Ottoman practice, for the remainder of his life. 101 Throughout his public career, the Mufti relied upon traditional Qur’anic anti-Jewish motifs to arouse the Arab street. For example, during the incitement which led to the 1929 Arab revolt in Palestine, he called for combating and slaughtering "the Jews", not merely Zionists. In fact, most of the Jewish victims of the 1929 Arab revolt were Jews from the centuries old dhimmi communities (for eg., in Hebron), as opposed to recent settlers identified with the Zionist movement. 102 With the ascent of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, the Mufti and his coterie intensified their anti-Semitic activities to secure support from Hitler's Germany (and later Bosnian Muslims, as well as the overall Arab Muslim world), for a jihad to annihilate the Jews of Palestine. Following his expulsion from Palestine by the British, the Mufti fomented a brutal anti-Jewish pogrom in Baghdad (1941), concurrent with his failed effort to install a pro-Nazi Iraqi government. 103 Escaping to Europe after this unsuccessful coup attempt, the Mufti spent the remainder of World War II in Germany and Italy. From this sanctuary, he provided active support for the Germans by recruiting Bosnian Muslims, in addition to Muslim minorities from the Caucasus, for dedicated Nazi SS units. 104 The Mufti's objectives for these recruits, and Muslims in general, were made explicit during his multiple wartime radio broadcasts from Berlin, heard throughout the Arab world: an international campaign of genocide against the Jews. For example, during his March 1, 1944 broadcast he stated: "Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history, and religion.” 105
Hajj Amin made an especially important contribution to the German war effort in Yugoslovia where the Bosnian Muslim SS units he recruited (in particular the Handzar Division) brutally suppressed local Nazi resistance movements. The Mufti's pamphlet entitled, "Islam and the Jews", was published by the Nazis in Croatian and German for distribution during the war to these Bosnian Muslim SS units. 106 This hateful propaganda served to incite the slaughter of Jews, and (Serb) Christians as well. Indeed, the Bosnian Muslim Handzar SS Division was responsible for the destruction of whole Bosnian Jewish and Serbian communities, including the massacre of Jews and Serbs, and the deportation of survivors to Auschwitz for extermination. However, these heinous crimes, for which the Mufti bears direct responsibility, had only a limited impact on the overall destruction of European Jewry when compared with his nefarious wartime campaign to prevent Jewish emigration from Europe to Palestine. Jan Wanner, in his 1986 analysis of the Mufti’s collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II, concluded,
…the darkest aspect of the Mufti’s activities in the final stage of the war was undoubtedly his personal share in the extermination of Europe’s Jewish population. On May 17, 1943, he wrote a personal letter to Ribbentrop, asking him to prevent the transfer of 4500 Bulgarian Jews, 4000 of them children, to Palestine. In May and June of the same year, he sent a number of letters to the governments of Bulgaria, Italy, Rumania, and Hungary, with the request not to permit even individual Jewish emigration and to allow the transfer of Jews to Poland where, he claimed they would be ‘under active supervision’. The trials of Eichmann’s henchmen, including Dieter Wislicency who was executed in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, confirmed that this was not an isolated act by the Mufti. 107
Invoking the personal support of such prominent Nazis as Himmler and Eichmann108, the Mufti's relentless hectoring of German, Rumanian, and Hungarian government officials caused the cancellation of an estimated 480,000 exit visas which had been granted to Jews (80,000 from Rumania, and 400,000 from Hungary). As a result, these hapless individuals were deported to Polish concentration camps. A United Nations Assembly document presented in 1947 which contained the Mufti's June 28, 1943 letter to the Hungarian Foreign Minister requesting the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Poland, includes this stark, telling annotation: "As a Sequel to This Request 400,000 Jews Were Subsequently Killed". The Mufti escaped to the Middle East after the war to avoid capture and possible prosecution for war crimes.
The Mufti was unrelenting in his espousal of a virulent Judeophobic hatred as the focal tenet of his ideology in the aftermath of World War II, and the creation of the State of Israel. The esteemed journalist and writer David Pryce-Jones elucidated the pre-eminent status of anti-Semitism in the Mufti's bitter legacy:
These, then, were the images and preconceptions to which Hajj Amin could appeal once he became the leading Palestinian power holder. In memoirs written at the end of his life, when the bankruptcy of these images and preconceptions was starkly visible, he was still speaking of the Jews as '..notorious for perfidy and falsification and distortion and cruelty of which the noble Koran provides the strongest testimony against them..'. His hatred for Jews was instinctive, tribal; he wished to cut them down, declaring to their face, '..Nothing but the sword will decide the future of this country..'. That this came true amid calamity and ruin was Hajj Amin's memorial to posterity.109
Pryce-Jones insights underscore the profound impact of the Mufti's personal convictions and hateful messages on the development of Arab and Palestinian political culture in the latter half of the 20th century, to the present. It is undeniable that the Mufti's virulent anti-Semitism continues to influence Arab policy toward Israel. Not surprisingly, Yasser Arafat, beginning at the age of 16, worked for the Mufti performing terrorist operations. Arafat always characterized the Mufti as his primary spiritual and political mentor.
Yasser Arafat orchestrated a relentless campaign of four decades of brutal jihad terrorism against the Jewish State, beginning in the early 1960s 110, until his recent death, interspersed with a bloody jihad (during the mid 1970s and early 1980s) against the Christians of Lebanon. 111 Chameleon-like, Arafat adopted a thin veneer of so-called “secular radicalism”, particularly during the late 1960s and 1970s. Sober analysis reveals, however, that shorn of these superficial secular trappings, Arafat’s core ideology remained quintessentially Islamic, i.e., rooted in jihad, throughout his career as a terrorist leader. This argument is supported by voluminous evidence. Arafat’s initial organized acts of jihad terrorism, border raids 112, mimicked the celebrated ghazi forays of Islam’s early jihadists. Historian Charles Emmanuel Dufourcq described this phenomenon as it pertained to Muslim penetration into medieval North Africa, and Europe:
It is not difficult to understand that such expeditions sowed terror. The historian al-Maqqari, who wrote in seventeenth-century Tlemcen in Algeria, explains that the panic created by the Arab horsemen and sailors, at the time of the Muslim expansion in the zones that saw those raids and landings, facilitated the later conquest, if that was decided on: ‘Allah,’ he says, ‘thus instilled such fear among the infidels that they did not dare to go and fight the conquerors; they only approached them as suppliants, to beg for peace.’113
Upon Khomeini’s ascension to power in Iran, Arafat immediately cabled the Ayatollah relaying these shared jihadist sentiments (February 13, 1979):
I pray Allah to guide your step along the path of faith and Holy War (Jihad) in Iran, continuing the combat until we arrive at the walls of Jerusalem, where we shall raise the flags of our two revolutions. 114
And even after the Oslo accords, literally within a week of signing the specific Gaza-Jericho agreements, Arafat issued a brazen pronouncement (at a meeting of South African Muslim leaders) reflecting his unchanged jihadist views:
The jihad will continue and Jerusalem is not for the Palestinian people alone…It is for the entire Muslim umma. You are responsible for Palestine and Jerusalem before me…No, it is not their capital, it is our capital. 115
During the final decade of his life Arafat reiterated these sentiments on numerous occasions, and acted upon them, orchestrating an escalating campaign of jihad terrorism which culminated in the perverse orgy of Islamikaze 116 violence that lead to Israel’s Operation Defensive Shield military operations in the West Bank two days after the Netanya Passover massacre on March 27, 2002. 117
Moreover, throughout Arafat’s tenure as the major Palestinian Arab leader, his efforts to destroy Israel and replace it with an Arab Muslim sharia-based entity were integrated into the larger Islamic umma’s jihad against the Jewish State, as declared repeatedly in official conference pronouncements from various clerical or political organizations of the Muslim (both Arab and non-Arab) nations. The excerpts below are prominent examples of these formal statements, issued unabashedly at various Arab Muslim or Islamic fora, between 1968 and 2003, by prominent Muslim religious leaders and politicians:
From Cairo, 1968, The Fourth Conference of the Academy of Islamic Research : 118
Jihad is legislated in order to be one of the means of propagating Islam. Consequently Non-Muslims ought to embrace Islam either willingly or through wisdom and good advice or unwillingly through fight and Jihad…It is unlawful to give up Jihad and adopt peace and weakness instead of it, unless the purpose of giving up Jihad is for preparation, whenever there is something weak among Muslims, and their opponents are, on the other hand, strong…War is the basis of the relationship between Muslims and their opponents unless there are justifiable reason for peace, such as adopting Islam or making an agreement with them to keep peaceful. [Shaikh Abdullah Ghoshah, Chief Judge of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan]
Your honorable conference has been an Arab, Islamic and patriotic necessity in view of the present circumstances in which the Arabs and Muslims face the most serious difficulties. All Muslims expect you to expound Allah’s decree concerning the Palestine cause, to proclaim that decree, in all clarity, throughout the Arab and Muslim world. We do not think this decree absolves any Muslim or Arab from Jihad (Holy War) which has now become a duty incumbent upon the Arabs and Muslims to liberate the land, preserve honor, retaliate for [lost] dignity, restore the Aqsa Mosque, the church of Resurrection, and to purge the birthplace of prophecy, the seat of revelation, the meeting-place of Prophets, the starting-point of Isra, and the scenes of the holy spirit, from the hands of Zionism – the enemy of man, of truth, of justice, and the enemy of Allah…The well-balanced judgement frankly expressed with firm conviction is the first stop on the road of victory. The hoped-for judgment is that of Muslim Scholars who draw their conclusions from the Book of Allah, and the Summa of His prophet. May Allah guard your meeting, and guide your steps! May your decisive word rise to the occasion and enlighten the Arab and Muslim world, so that it may be a battle-cry, urging millions of Muslims and Arabs on to the field of Jihad, which will lead us to the place that once was ours…Muslims who are distant from the battle-field of Palestine, such as the Algerians, the Moroccans, all the Africans, Saudi Arabia people, Yemeni people, the Indians, Iraqi people, the Russians, and the Europeans are indeed sinful if they do not hasten to offer all possible means to achieve success and gain victory in the Islamic battle against their enemies and the enemies of their religion. Particularly, this battle is not a mete combat between two parties but it is a battle between two religions (namely, it is a religious battle). Zionism in fact represents a very perilous cancer, aiming at domineering the Arab countries and the whole Islamic world. [Sheikh Hassan Khalid, Mufti of the Republic of Lebanon]
Throughout the long ages of Muslim history, the Jews had been quite powerless under the rule of Islam. But in Modern times the Colonialist Powers could put into effect their designs. Once Muslim Jurisprudence had been discarded as a rule of life, the Jews could establish a State of their own in the heart of the Muslim World, to defy Muslims, and to gain victory over the Arabs in three consecutive battles…Hence present-day Muslims should never treat with them for peace, since it has been proved beyond doubt that they [the Jews] are a mere gang of robbers and criminals, to whom trust, faith and conscience mean nothing…Our return to (the true teachings of) Islam would restore to the Muslin Community its vital principles, the force of which would realized endurance and steadfastness, confidence, and will, courage and faith. Thus could be established the equitable power that would be a factor in promoting peace and prosperity for the world at large…There would be built up inside the World of Islam armament plants, so that Muslims might be in no need of importing them from enemy countries, which would certainly make a band on such exports for fear of their possible use against them. [Sheikh Abdu-Hamid Attiyah Al-Dibani, Rector of the Islamic University of Libya].
From the Fez Islamic Conference, 1980: 119
His Majesty King Hassan II of Morocco, in his address said the significance of Jihad, in Islam, did not lie in religious wars or crusades. Rather it was strategic political and military action, and psychological warfare, which, if employed by the Islamic Umma, would ensure victory over the enemy. He said that Islam was subject only to God Almighty, and to reason, and that the recent Zionist decision had greatly affected the Islamic world; for Islam, and the noble ethics of the Prophet, had taught us to curb our wrath unless Allah’s sanctities were desecrated, and was there a greater desecration than that against Al Quds Al Sharif the First Qibla and Third Haram.
His Majesty, in the name of the Islamic Group, emphasized to the Palestinian brethren that they alone were not the only ones to suffer the loss of Al Quds: the whole Islamic world has suffered the loss also, and will restore the Holy City with them; for Al Quds was not a trust to the Palestinians along, but a trust to every single Muslim, man or woman.
H.E. Habib Chatti, the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference
He said this Extraordinary Session must define the areas of mobilizing all the potentials of the Islamic Umma so that Jihad would enter its practical phase in a manner much more effective than at present, and the will of the people will bear fruit, especially that we had won over to our side world public opinion through the serous positions we adopted and our determination to pursue our confrontation with Israel, the expansionist entity that has usurped the rights if the Islamic Umma.
[Resolution] 23. TO DECLARE the commitment of the Islamic states to holy “Jihad,” with its wide-ranging humanitarian dimensions, as it constitutes steadfastness in the face of Zionist enemy on all military, political, economic, information and cultural fronts.
From the Mecca Islamic Summit Conference, 1981: 120
The undertaking by all Islamic countries of psychological mobilization through their various official, semi-official, and popular mass media, of their people for Jihad to liberate Al-Quds…Ensuring military coordination among the front-line states and the Palestine Liberation Organization, on the one hand, and the Islamic States on the other, to ensure full utilization of the potentialities of the Islamic States in the service of the military effort; and setting up a military office in the Islamic Secretariat to be responsible for such coordination, in agreement with the Committee on Al-Quds…
Resolution No.2/3.P (IS) on the Cause of Palestine and the Middle East: Considering that the Liberation of Al-Quds and its restoration to Arab sovereignty, as well as the liberation of the holy places from Zionist occupation, are a pre-requisite to the Jihad that all Islamic States must wage, each according to its means….
Resolution No.5/3-P (IS)- Declaration of Holy Jihad:
Taking these facts into consideration, the Kinds, Emirs, and Presidents of Islamic States, meeting at this Conference and in this holy land, studied this situation and concluded that it could no longer be tolerated that the forthcoming stage should be devoted to effective action to vindicate right and deter wrong-doing; and have unanimously.
Decided: To declare holy Jihad, as the duty of every Muslim, many or woman, ordained by the Shariah and glorious traditions of Islam; To call upon all Muslims, living inside or outside Islamic countries, to discharge this duty by contributing each according to his capacity in the case of Allah Almighty, Islamic brotherhood, and righteousness; To specify that Islamic states, in declaring Holy Jihad to save Al-Quds al-Sharif, in support of the Palestinian people, and to secure withdrawal from the occupied Arab territories, wish to explain to the world that Holy Jihad is an Islamic concept which may not be misinterpreted or misconstrued, and that the practical measures to put into effect would be in accordance with that concept and by incessant consultations among Islamic states.
From the Putrajaya Islamic Summit, 2003, Speech by Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Mahathier Mohammad at the opening of the 10th Session of the Islamic Summit Conference on Oct 16, 2003: 121
To begin with, the governments of all the Muslim countries can close ranks and have a common stand if not on all issues, at least on some major ones, such as on Palestine. We are all Muslims…Over the centuries the ummah and the Muslim civilization became so weak that at one time there was not a single Muslim country which was not colonized or hegemonized by the Europeans…The Europeans could do what they liked with Muslim territories. It is not surprising that they should excise Muslim land to create the state of Israel to solve their Jewish problem. Divided, the Muslims could do nothing effective to stop the Balfour and Zionist transgression… We are now 1.3 billion strong. We have the biggest oil reserve in the world. We have great wealth. We are not as ignorant as the Jahilliah who embraced Islam. We are familiar with the workings of the world’s economy and finances. We control 50 out of the 180 countries in the world…We need guns and rockets, bombs and warplanes, tanks and warships…We may want to recreate the first century of the Hijrah, the way of life in those times, in order to practice what we think to be the true Islamic way of life….1.3 billion Muslims cannot be defeated by a few million Jews. There must be a way. And we can only find a way if we stop to think, to assess our weaknesses and our strength, to plan, to strategize and then to counter-attack. As Muslims, we must seek guidance from the Al-Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet. Surely the 23 years’ struggle of the Prophet can provide us with some guidance as to what we can and should do…We are actually very strong. 1.3 billion people cannot be simply wiped out. The Europeans killed six million Jews out of 12 million. But today the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them…We are up against a people who think. They survived 2000 years of pogroms not by hitting back, but by thinking. They invented and successfully promoted Socialism, Communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong, so they may enjoy rights with others. With these they have now gained control of the most powerful countries and they, this tiny community, have become a world power. We cannot fight them through brawn alone. We must use our brains also…Of late because of their power and their apparent success they have become arrogant. And arrogant people, like angry people will make mistakes, will forget to think. They are already beginning to make mistakes. And they will make more mistakes. There may be windows of opportunity for us now and in the future.
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