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The Legacy of Jihad in Palestine (Continued II) By: Andrew G. Bostom
FrontPageMagazine.com | Tuesday, December 07, 2004


Conclusion 

After more than thirteen centuries of almost uninterrupted jihad in historical Palestine, it is not surprising that the finalized constitution for the proposed Palestinian Arab state declares all aspects of Palestinian state law to be subservient to the Shari’a, 122 while contemporary Palestinian Authority religious intelligentsia, as represented by Sheikh Salamah and Sheikh Al-Madhi, openly support restoration of the oppressive system of dhimmitude within a Muslim dominated Israel, as well. 123 An appropriate assessment of such anachronistic, discriminatory views was provided by the Catholic Archbishop of the Galilee, Butrus Al-Mu'alem, who, in a June 1999 statement dismissed the notion of modern “dhimmis” submitting to Muslims:

 

It is strange to me that there remains such backwardness in our society; while humans have already reached space, the stars, and the moon... there are still those who amuse themselves with fossilized notions. 124

 

A strange notion for our modern times, certainly, but very real, ominous, and sobering.

 

Notes

 

1. Jacques Ellul. Foreward to Les Chretientes d’Orient entre Jihad et Dhimmitude. VIIe - XXe siecle, 1991. Pp. 18-19.  

2. Arthur Jeffery. “The Political Importance of Islam”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 1, 1942, p. 386.

3. Richard Bell,  The Qur’an. Vol. 1, Edinburgh, 1937 

4. Richard Bell, The Qur’an. p.171.

5 Arthur Jeffery, “The Political Importance of Islam”, p. 386. Three decades earlier, W.R.W. Gardner (in, “Jihad”, Moslem World, Vol. 2, 1912, pp. 348-349; 350; 354-355) had debunked, at length, similar apologetics written by Sheikh Muhammad Rida, Chiragh Ali, and others, observing,

 

There is undoubtedly a feeling, if not a belief among many Westerners that a Moslem regards it as a duty binding on him in accordance with the literal command of the Koran, to kill any and every believer whom he may meet once jihad has been proclaimed. Sheikh Rida acknowledges that this conception of the duty of a Moslem during jihad may have been in the past, and may even now be common among the ignorant or less educated Moslems, but he says that much of this feeling has been the result of mixing with foreigners (non-Moslems), who have had the mistaken idea of what Moslems mean by jihad, and that this mistaken idea of these non-Moslems has crept into Moslem minds, and has thus given apparent support to the belief that this is really a Mohammedan conception of one’s duty in jihad. Let us note here that it is because this conception of the duty of a ‘believer’ in time of jihad is, as a matter of fact the common belief of the ignorant Moslems (as the Sheikh admits, and for practical purposes it matters not how it arose), and because the ignorant Moslems form the greater part of the population in any Mohammedan land, that the non-Moslem subjects and residents in any land under Moslem rule have come to fear the word ‘jihad’, and to appeal to the more enlightened to be careful in their use of it. For they know that however it may be used by educated writers, the common people understand by it, attack on non-Moslems, and believe that it is their duty to destroy as many as possible of these unbelievers. Further, they know well how easy it is for an ignorant mob to get out of hand, especially when, rightly or wrongly, it believes that any action which has as its object the glory of God and the better establishment of the true religion, would be looked upon by those in authority with a lenient eye, if not with actual sympathy…For the question of what jihad is cannot be settled by reference alone to the etymology of the word jihad. The Koran plainly teaches in many passages, notwithstanding claims put forward by Chiragh Ali, the duty of fighting for the faith or ‘in the way of God’, by using the word qatala, and El Zamakhshary…says, ‘Fighting in the way of God is jihad for the glorifying of his word and the strengthening of the Religion’. And whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word jihad, there can be no gainsaying the fact that it is sometimes used in the Koran in the sense of warlike actions, a warfare for the sake of the FaithIs war for the extension of Islamic rule also jihad? In considering this point, not much light is to be got from the writings of the more recent Moslem authors, such as those we have quoted. They simply deny that it is a principle of Islam that jihad may include wars of aggression. By denying this, they do not prove anything…For what we are considering is, what Mohammedanism is and has been- that is, what orthodox Mohammedanism teaches concerning jihad, founding its doctrine on a certain definite interpretation of those passages in the Koran which speak of jihad. Until the newer conceptions, as to what the Koran teaches as to the duty of the believer towards non-believers, have spread further and have more generally leavened the mass of Moslem belief and opinion, it is the older and orthodox standpoint on this question which must be regarded by non-Moslems as representing Mohammedan teaching and as guiding Mohammedan action. We may sympathize strongly with the newer ideas…we may hope that those who advance these ideas may succeed in having them generally accepted by Mohammedans; but … it is the older and narrower orthodox conception of Muhammad’s teaching alone, which we can as yet regard as representing the views and practice of Islam with regard to jihad on this question of aggressive war. And the words of …Chiragh Ali are such that we need not spend any time in trying to prove that orthodox Mohammedanism believes and teaches that, according to the Koran, it is the nature of jihad to be aggressive. Let us quote his words again: ‘The Mohammedan Common Law is wrong on this point when it allows unbelievers to be attacked without provocation.’ We take then as proved, the statement that Mohammedan Common Law allows unbelievers to be attacked without provocation…

 

6. Maxime Rodinson, “The Western Image and Western Studies of Islam”, in The Legacy of Islam, edited by Joseph Schacht with C.E. Bosworth, London, 1974, p. 59.  

7. Khaled Abou El Fadl, “The Place of Tolerance in Islam” title essay, in The Place of Tolerance in Islam (Boston, MA.: Beacon Press, 2002), p. 19.

8. Khaled Abou El Fadl, “The rules of killing at war: an inquiry into classical sources”, Muslim World 1999;  Vol. 89 (number 2), pp.144-157.

9. Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore, MD.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955), Pp. 63-64.

10. Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, NJ. : Markus Wiener, 1996), Pp.3,5.

11. John Esposito, Islam The Straight Path, New York, 1994.

12. Bat Ye'or, Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Translated by Miriam Kochan and David Littman, (Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 2001, p. 314

13. Bat Ye'or, Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, p. 315-16.

14. Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari (Ta’rikh al rusul wa’l-muluk), vol. 12, The Battle of Qadissiyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine, translated by Yohanan Friedman, (Albany, NY.: State University of New York Press, 1992), p. 167.

15. The Noble Qur’an http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/

16. Translation of Sahih Bukhari http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/

17. Translation of Sahih Muslim

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/

18. Ibn Khaldun, The Muqudimmah. An Introduction to History, Translated by Franz Rosenthal. (New York, NY.: Pantheon, 1958, vol. 1), p. 473.

19. Watt, W.M. [Translator]. The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazali, Oxford, England, 1953, p. 13.

20. Al-Ghazali (d. 1111). Kitab al-Wagiz fi fiqh madhab al-imam al-Safi’i, Beirut, 1979, pp. 186, 190-91; 199-200; 202-203. [English translation by Dr. Michael Schub.]

21. Harry W. Hazard,  Atlas of Islamic History, Princeton University Press, 1951.

22. Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari (Ta’rikh al rusul wa’l-muluk), vol. 12; vol. 13, The Conquest of Iraq, Southwestern Persia, and Egypt. Translated by G.H.A. Juynboll, (Albany, NY.: State University of New York Press, 1989); Al-Baladhuri, The Origins of the Islamic State (Kitah Futuh al-Buldan), translated by Philip K. Hitti, (Piscataway, NJ.: Georgias Press, 2002); Al-Kufi, The Chachnãmah, Part I: Giving the Mussulman period from the Arab conquest to the beginning of the reign of the Kalhorahs, translated by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, (Delhi Reprint, 1979); Elliott and Dowson, A History of India As Told by Its Own Historians, Vols. 1-8, 1867-1877, (reissued Delhi Reprint, 2001); Kanhadade Prabandha, translated, introduced and annotated by V.S. Bhatnagar, New Delhi, 1991; Biography of Dharmasvamin (Chag lotsava Chos-rje-dpal), a Tibetan Pilgrim, English translation by G. Roerich, Patna,  1959; Mary Boyce, “Chapter Ten- Under the Caliphs”, pp. 145-162, in Zoroastrians-Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, (Routledge, London), 2001; A.E. Vacalopoulos, Origins of the Greek Nation-The Byzantine Period, 1204-1461, New Brunswick, N.J., 1970; Speros Vryonis, Jr., The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor, (Berkeley, CA.: University of California Press, 1971); K.S. Lal, The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India (New Delhi.: Aditya Prakashan, 1992); Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634 -1099, Translated by Ethel Broido, (Cambridge. : Cambridge University Press, 1992);   Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, Translated by Miriam Kochan and David Littman, (Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 1996)

23. Al- Mawardi, The Laws of Islamic Governance [al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah], (London, United Kingdom.: Ta-Ha, 1996, pp. 60; 77-78; 200-201.

24. E. W. Lane,  ‘An Arabic-English Lexicon’ (London, 1865), Book I Part II, Jizya, p. 422.

25. Jadunath Sarkar, “The Islamic State Church in India”, Pp. 283-318, in History of Aurangzib, Vol. 3, (Longmans Green and Co., London) 1929; S.D. Goitein, "Evidence on the Muslim Poll Tax from Non-Muslim Sources" Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1963; Vol. 6, Pp. 278-295;  Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, Translated by David Maisel, Paul Fenton, and David Littman. (Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 1985, Pp. 53-54; The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, Pp. 77-79; Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Pp. 65-71.

26. Bat Ye’or, Islam and Dhimmitude, p. 70.

27. Bat Ye’or, Islam and Dhimmitude, p. 70-71.

28. Al- Mawardi, The Laws of Islamic Governance, p. 211; Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, p. 169; Lal, The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India, p. 237.

29. Al-Ghazali (d. 1111). Kitab al-Wagiz fi fiqh madhab al-imam al-Safi’i, Beirut, 1979, pp. 186, 190-91; 199-200; 202-203. [English translation by Dr. Michael Schub.]

30. Moshe Gil,  A History of Palestine, 634-1099, translated by Ethel Broido, Cambridge and New York, 1992, p. 11.

31. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 11

32. Richard Bell, The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment, London, 1926, Pp. 134-135; 151; 159-161.

33. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 22-31.

34. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 32-43.

35. Demetrios Constantelos, “Greek Christian and Other Accounts of the Moslem Conquests of the Near East”, in Christian Hellenism : Essays and Studies in Continuity and Change, New Rochelle, N.Y., A.D. Caratzas, 1998, p. 125.

36. Demetrios Constantelos, “Greek Christian and Other Accounts of the Moslem Conquests”, p. 126.

37. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 2.

38. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 14-15.

39. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 20.

40. Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, p. 44.

41. Bat Ye’or, “Islam and the Dhimmis”,  The Jerusalem Quarterly, 1987, Vol. 42, p. 85.

42. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 61, 169.

43. Naphtali Lewis, “New Light on the Negev in Ancient Times”, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 1948, Vol. 80, Pp. 116-117.

44. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p 170.

45. MEMRI, “Muslim-Christian Tensions in the Israeli-Arab Community”, August 2, 1999, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP4199

46. MEMRI, “A Friday Sermon on PA TV: … We Must Educate our Children on the Love of Jihad…' ”, July 11, 2001, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP24001

47. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 420-21.

48. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 473.

49. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 473.

50. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 473.

51. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 474.

52. Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, p. 74.

53. Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahre, translated from the Syriac by Jean-Baptiste Chabot (Paris, 1895), part 4, p. 112 [English translation in: Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, p. 74.]

54. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 474-75.

55. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 159

56. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p.159; Q16:63- “By God, We (also) sent (Our apostles) to peoples before thee; but Satan made, (to the wicked) their own acts seem alluring: he is also their patron today, but they shall have a most grievous penalty”; Q5:72-“They do blaspheme who say: ‘Allah is Christ the son of Mary.’ But said Christ: ‘O Children of Israel! worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’  Whoever joins other gods with Allah,- Allah will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.” Q58:19- “The devil hath engrossed them and so hath caused them to forget remembrance of Allah. They are the devil's party. Lo! is it not the devil's party who will be the losers?”

57. Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, p. 84.

58. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 475-76.

59. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 375.

60. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 373.

61. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 376.

62. Moshe Gil, “Dhimmi Donations and Foundations for Jerusalem (638-1099)”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 37, 1984, pp. 166-167.

63. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 415.

64. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 412.

65. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 415.

66. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 416.

67. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 416.

68. Julius Greenstone, in his essay, “The Turcoman Defeat at Cairo” The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 22, 1906, pp. 144-175,  provides a translation of this poem [excerpted, pp. 164-165] by Solomon ha-Kohen b. Joseph [believed to be a descendant of the Geonim, an illustrious family of Palestinian Jews of priestly descent], which includes the poet’s recollection of the previous Turcoman conquest of Jerusalem during the eighth decade of the 11th century. Greenstone comments [p. 152], “As appears from the poem, the conquest of Jerusalem by Atsiz was very sorely felt by the Jews. The author dwell at great length on the cruelties perpetrated against the inhabitants of the city…”

69. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 420.

70. Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Pp. 420-21.

71. For example, Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades- Vol. 1- The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge, 1951, Pp. 286-87; Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 827 notes, “The Christians violated their promise to the inhabitants that they would be left alive, and slaughtered some 20,000 to 30,000 people, a number which may be an exaggeration…”

72. Emmanuel Sivan, “Palestine During the Crusades”, in A History of the Holy Land, edited by Michael Avi-Yonah, Continuum, New York, 2001, p. 244.

73. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades- Vol. 3-The Kingdom of Acre, Cambridge, 1955, Pp. 419-21.

74. Isaac b. Samuel of Acre. Osar Hayyim (Treasure Store of Life) (Hebrew). Ms. Gunzburg 775 fol. 27b. Lenin State Library, Moscow. [English translation in, Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, Pp. 352-54.

75. C.E. Bosworth, “Christian and Jewish Dignitaries in Mamluk Egypt and Syria: Qalqashandi’s Information on Their Hierarchy, Titulature, and Appointment (I)”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 3, 1972, Pp. 65-66. 

76. Samuel b. Ishaq Uceda, Lehem dim’ah (The Bread of Tears) (Hebrew). Venice, 1606. [English translation in, Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, Pp. 354.

77.  Bat Ye’or, Islam and Dhimmitude, p. 318.

78. Gedaliah of Siemiatyc, Sha’alu Shelom Yerushalayim (Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem), (Hebrew), Berlin, 1716. [English translation in, Bat Ye’or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam, Pp. 377-80.]

79. Moshe Maoz,  “Changes in the Position of the Jewish Communities of Palestine and Syria in the Mid-Nineteenth Century”, in Moshe Maoz  (Editor), Studies on Palestine During the Ottoman Period, The Magnes Press, 1975, p. 142.

80. A. A. Bonar and R. M. McCheyne, A Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews from the Church of Scotland in 1839 (Edinburgh, 1842), Pp. 180-81, 273.

81. James Finn, British Consul, Report from Jerusalem, November 8, 1858, cited in, Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, Pp. 252-53.

82. Tudor Parfitt, The Jews of Palestine, 1800-1882 The Boydell Press, 1987, p. 168.

83. Tudor Parfitt, The Jews of Palestine, Pp. 172-73.

84. Yair Auron,  The Banality of Indifference, Transaction Publishers, 2000, p. 75.

85. Yair Auron,  The Banality of Indifference, p. 77.

86. Yair Auron,  The Banality of Indifference, Pp. 82-83.

87. Musa Kazem el-Husseini, (President Palestinian Arab Congress), to High Commissioner for Palestine, December 10, 1920 (Translated January 2, 1921), Israel State Archives, R.G. 2, Box 10, File 244.

88. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39: The Case of Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam and His Movement”, in Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel, edited by Elie Kedourie and Sylvia G. Haim, Frank Cass, London, 1982, p. 55.

89. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 59-61.

90. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 61-62.

91. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 61, 63.

92. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 64, 71.

93. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, p. 76.

94. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, p. 71.

95. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, p. 72.

96. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, p.72.

97. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 78-86.

98. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 96-97.

99. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, Pp. 87-88.

100. Shai Lachman, “Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39”, p. 88.

101. Joseph B. Schechtman, The Mufti and The Fuehrer, New York, 1965; Zvi Elpeleg, The Grand Mufti Haj Amin Al-Hussaini, translated by David Harvey, Frank Cass, 1993.

102. Yossef Bodansky, Islamic Antisemitism as a Political Instrument , Houston, 1999, p. 29.

103. Joseph B. Schechtman, The Mufti and The Fuehrer, Pp. 114-15.

104. Jennie Lebel, Hajj Amin ve Berlin (Hajj Amin and Berlin), Tel Aviv, 1996.

105.  Joseph B. Schechtman, The Mufti and The Fuehrer, Pp. 151.

106. Jennie Lebel, Hajj Amin ve Berlin (Hajj Amin and Berlin), pp. 140-42;  Jan Wanner, in, “Amin al-Husayni and Germany’s Arab Policy in the Period 1939-1945”, Archiv Orientalni Vol. 54, 1986, p. 244, observes, “His appeals…addressed to the Bosnian Muslims were…close in many respects to the argumentation used by contemporary Islamic fundamentalists…the Mufti viewed only as a new interpretation of the traditional concept of the Islamic community (umma) sharing with Nazism common enemies”

107. Jan Wanner, “Amin al-Husayni and Germany’s Arab Policy”, p. 243

108. Joseph B. Schechtman, The Mufti and The Fuehrer, Pp. 152-63.

109. David Pryce-Jones, The Closed Circle, New York, 1989, p. 191.

110. Efraim Karsh, Arafat’s War, New York, 2003.

111. Walid Phares, Lebanese Christian Nationalism, Boulder, CO, 1995; Farid El-Khazen, The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon- 1967-1976, Cambridge, 2000.

112. Michael Oren, Six Days of War- June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East, Oxford, 2002, , p.1

113. Charles Emmanuel Dufourcq, La Vie Quotidienne dans l’Europe Medievale sous Domination Arabe, Paris, 1978, p. 20.

114. Bat Ye’or, “Aspects of the Arab-Israeli Conflict”, Wiener Library Bulletin, Vol. 32, 1979, p. 68.

115. Efraim Karsh, Arafat’s War, p. 117.

116. Raphael Israeli, Islamikaze- Manifestations of Islamic Martyrology, Frank Cass, London, 2003.

117. Efraim Karsh, Arafat’s War, p. 233.

118. All excerpts from, Bat Ye’or, The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, Pp.391-94.

119. All excerpts from, Bat Ye’or, Eurabia- The Euro-Arab Axis (Galleys), Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 2005, Pp. 275-76; 280.

120. All excerpts from, Bat Ye’or, Eurabia- The Euro-Arab Axis (Galleys), Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 2005, Pp. 288-90; 295.

121. All excerpts from, Bat Ye’or, Eurabia- The Euro-Arab Axis (Galleys), Cranbury, NJ.: Associated University Presses, 2005, Pp. 314-19.

122. Bedein, David. “A Not So Merry Christmas in the Holy Land” FrontPageMagazine.com December 26, 2003 http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=11477  

123. MEMRI, “Muslim-Christian Tensions in the Israeli-Arab Community”, August 2, 1999, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP4199 ; MEMRI, “A Friday Sermon on PA TV: … We Must Educate our Children on the Love of Jihad…' ”, July 11, 2001, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP24001 

124. MEMRI, “Muslim-Christian Tensions in the Israeli-Arab Community”.


Andrew G. Bostom is a frequent contributor to Frontpage Magazine.com, and the author of The Legacy of Jihad, and the forthcoming The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism.



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